Selecting the Cage for Cockatiel

If you have decided to have a Cockatiel for a pet, you need to understand what it takes to provide the best care for this bird. Although this bird does not really need high maintenance when it comes to cost of anything that will make the bird’s life acceptable. You will need to make sure that you have enough time and energy to devote to provide adequate care and create quality moments with the bird. One of the firsts that you need to consider is selecting the best cage for Cockatiel.

Proper Care for Cockatiels

Cage for Cockatiel

Caring for this bird requires daily commitment of providing several hours of affection and undivided attention. It may seem quite demanding, but if provided properly, you will reap the rewards many times over.

One of the primary tasks to consider to ensure that you will be able to provide the best care for your Cockatiel is to ensure that you create the most appropriate conditions and environment. You can start by finding the best cage for cockatiel. The pet’s cage is a good spot to start. Remember that the cage that you designate as your bird’s next home will affect its overall health drastically if you won’t be able to get an appropriately sized cage for Cockatiel.

Before heading out to check a local pet store or even online, however, you need to make sure that you know enough about the product that you intend to purchase. Instead of relying on the sales staff at pet stores for possible cage suggestions, it is still best that you understand quite well what your pet needs to be able to make the right decision. Take note that most well-known chain pet stores hire employees who know very little about birds nor choosing the best cage for cockatiel. All that they could probably been required to read on is the selling and customer service guidebook that they might have been provided with.

It is highly recommended that you turn to forums for guides from breeders. It is a great way to share your concerns with experts and be provided with the right information that will help you make a wise decision later on.

Selecting the Best Cage for Cockatiels

To ensure that you will be choosing the best option for a bird cage, you will always have to go with a cage that is of the highest quality. Look for cages made with stainless steel or wrought iron powder coated cages as they are safer and more durable than those made with wire or plastic materials. They are also easier to clean. Considering about maintenance, a cage that has a pull out tray at the bottom, will be a great option.

You might be tempted to choose round or cylindrical cages, but birds actually these types of cage can restrict the birds movement and can cause insecurity for your Cockatiels. Find one with enough flying clearance and one that has a secure latch that will keep your bird locked up securely. (more…)

How to Effectively Treat Worms in Horses

Like other domestic animals, horses are prone to diseases and parasites that affect their well-being. Both the internal and external parasites are likely to affect the horse.

A low number of parasites in the horse’s body may not have severe effects on the animal. However, a high number of parasites has serious health implications on the horse.

Treat Worms in Horses

Types of Worms That Affect the Horses

  • Pinworms-They harbor in the large intestines or the rectum of the horses. They cause hair loss and severe itching of the tail.
  • Bots-The bots are flies that lay eggs on the skin of the horse. The horse ingests the eggs when it licks its horse. They cause inflammation of the harbor, skin and stomach ulcers which brings about colic or perforation of the intestines.
  • Stronglyes (Cyathostomins)-Both the large and small redworms cause serious health problems to the horse. They cause severe weight loss, colic and diarrhea. In severe cases, it leads to death.
  • Tapeworms-They causes less damage to the horse. However, in severe cases, they cause blockage in the large intestines causing digestive problems and colic.
  • Roundworms-These affects the liver, the digestive system and the respiratory system. In severe cases, it causes permanent damage to the digestive system. Also, they block and cause rupture of the gut resulting in death.

How to Control Worms in Horses

The horse owner has to follow a specified worm control method and exercise proper pasture management which is done by:

  • Picking up the horse droppings from the grazing area as soon as possible. During the warm weather, animal waste should be picked at least twice a week.
  • Avoid overgrazing. Overstocking the animals in a small grazing area increases the chances of worm infestation in the horses. The droppings will be more, and the horses will eat the pastures close to the ground where there are a high number of the eggs and larvae of the parasite.
  • Practice pastures rotation in the grazing paddocks within a period of six to eight weeks of grazing.
  • Cross-graze, the horse with other farm animals. Some of the worms affecting the horse may not survive in other animals. If the grazing area has parasites, the other animals will help reduce the rate of infestation in horses.
  • Harrowing helps in spreading the worms across the grazing field.
  • Feed the horses from the feeding tubs to avoid the contamination of the hay with the manure.
  • For a new horse, do not keep it with other horses. First, evaluate the parasite burden on it.

How to Treat Worms in Horses

If administered correctly, oral chemical medicine is the most effective method of treating worms in horses.

  • First, weigh the horse to help determine the right dosage for the animal. If you at the farm, use the weight tape as gives a rough estimate of the weight of the horse. Alternatively, use a weighbridge or the veterinary hospital.
  • When administering the wormer for hosre, ensure it has reached up to the throat. Tilt the head of the horse upwards to ensure the horse does not spit it out.
  • Ensure the horse does not spit even the slightest part of the dose. If the treatment is incomplete, the parasites will become resistant to the drug.
  • Give all the horses and ponies the wormer at the same time using the same medicine.


Best Substrate for Tegu

The burrowing lizards are also known as tegus always need the best substrates to serve their purposes. Substrates which also mean beddings provide comfort to the pet and making their stay in the new environment better. It is aimed at ensuring that the pet remains healthy and that it is able to carry out all the activities that it can carry out in a natural ecosystem. Since tegus keep on burrowing themselves, it means that they require a substrate that can help them burrow for up to 60 cm. providing tegus with a place where they can burrow themselves means physical fitness and makes them more natural. Burrowing also allows the tegu claws to remain filed without being interfered with by the humans.



These are self-cleaning substrates that help the tegus to remain healthy and comfortable. The bedding can be used for a very long time without being cleaned which allows the tegu to have the longest chance of life possible to carry out all its activities. The maintenance cost us therefore low than the other substrates which make it one of the best tegu substrate in the market. This materials making up this bedding allow easy burrowing of the tegus making it as similar to the natural environment as possible. Additionally, it does not irritate the sensitive feed off the young tegus making it easy to grow the young ones. Due to its bioactive properties, even the most sensitive of the reptiles can be reared on it without being disturbed.

DIY Naturalistic Mix

The best substrate in the market has already been found. The DIY naturalistic mix is a 15% peat moss, 15% play sand, 30% sphagnum moss, and 40% organic topsoil bedding. The top of the bedding has a layer of leaves. The properties of the bedding allow it to retain much moisture generated by the reptile humidifier. It also allows easy burrowing of the lizards thus keeping them happy and healthy. Especially when kept damp, the tegus have a chance of easily burrowing just like they do in the natural ecosystem. Maintenance for this bedding is also easy unlike most of the other substrates. You do not need to worry about the health of your tegu anymore since this bedding takes care of everything and ensures that the reptile is always happy and healthy. (more…)

Setting the Appropriate Heating, Lighting, and Humidity For Iguana

Another unique creature that has been a recent fad for pets is the iguana. This seemingly fragile reptile can grow to be a huge one and requires very specific feeding and housing requirement. Proper husbandry should include providing the appropriate heating, lighting, and humidity for a pet iguana.

Data shows that this interesting creature usually grow to as long as 6.6 ft. and can weigh to about 6 kgs. However, there are more recent reports indicating that they can grow to even larger than that, such as the one found in Fiji, which is said to be about 7 ft. and another as long as this marine iguana found a couple of years ago foraging underwater by some divers. They are known to be herbivores, so even if they do grow bigger than the regular-sized iguana, there is really no reason for you to fear. Still, you have to make sure that you have provided your pet with a room or an enclosure big enough to allow it to roam around without restrictions.


It is also worth noting that an iguana lives more than a decade. Online research indicates that these gentle giants can live to varied ages. Some have even live beyond 20 years. So, if you are planning to have one of these unusual creatures, make sure that you are thoroughly educated and quite dedicated so that you can provide the appropriate care that your pet will need.

One of the essential needs of a pet iguana is the right amounts of heat, light, and humidity. The design of the heating/lighting devices that may be appropriate for your pet will also depend on other factors as the size of the enclosure or habitat, the placement of the enclosure, the surrounding room temperatures, etc. There are several options available online and even in local  pet stores. When choosing the right elements for your pet’s housing, consider the following guidelines provided below.


Heat is an essential element that contributes to an iguana’s health. These docile reptiles are cold-blooded, hence would need supplemental heat to digest the food that they consume properly. They also need heat to help regulate their internal body temperatures. Your pet will need to best heat lamp source to warm its body so that all its organs will function well. Heat should not be provided in the same wavelength within the reptile’s enclosure, however. A range of temperatures (also called gradient) should be provided so that the iguana can regulate its body temperature by moving back and forth between cooler and warmer areas of the enclosure. (more…)

Proper Lighting, Heating, and Humidity for Iguanas

Lighting & Heating

Hot rocks are not recommended for iguanas! Not only are hot rocks inadequate in providing heat, but they are dangerous. There have been numerous cases of iguanas obtaining serious burns from hot rocks. Heat and light should come from above, since in the wild iguanas bask in the sunlight. Ordinary incandescent light bulbs work great to provide both heat and light. You do not need to purchase expensive “basking bulbs” from the pet store. These are no different than ordinary bulbs.

What wattage of bulbs you will need depends upon the ambient air temperature of the room and the size of the enclosure or basking area. Do not guess when it comes to temperature! It is imperative that you install a few good, reliable thermometers at various places in the enclosure to give you an accurate temperature readout. You can also hook up dimmer switches to your lights, which will allow for minute temperature adjustment.

Hooded clamp fixtures work well for basking lights, come in a variety of sizes and can be positioned in various ways within an enclosure. Be sure to use fixtures that are designed to accommodate the bulb wattage you are using. If you are using high wattage bulbs (150-250W), you must use a fixture with a ceramic socket to prevent fire hazard. Be sure to place the fixtures in such a position that your iguana cannot climb on or touch them.


If you place the fixtures inside the enclosure, it is a good idea to add a wire “bulb guard”, such as you see in the photo below, to prevent your iguana from coming into direct contact with hot bulbs. Bulb guards can be made from hardware cloth or other safe types of wire. If you have a smaller iguana that is likely to climb up on and/or cling to the light fixtures, consider placing the fixtures outside of the enclosure.

This simple bulb guard was made from a small piece of hardware cloth, which is held in place by the simple guard that came with the fixture. The edges of the wire have been bent under so that no sharp edges are exposed.

Nighttime heat – Like all other animals, iguanas must have a day/night cycle. We recommend a 12:12 or a 13:11 cycle. This means that you must shut your iguana’s lights off at night for 12 or 13 hours, or better yet, have them on a timer that turns them off at night and on again in the morning so you do not have to remember to do it. This allows the iguana to regulate behaviors and rest peacefully when necessary. Not providing a day/night light cycle can stress an iguana, causing behavioral changes such as feeding, pooping and unnecessary aggression.

Iguanas can and should have cooler temperatures at night, but they still need ambient air temperatures to fall no lower than 75-78ºF. How then, do you provide best heat lamp for iguanas, if you use light bulbs to heat the enclosure? There are a few methods of providing nighttime heat. One of the best is to use Ceramic Heat Emitters (CHEs), which screw into an incandescent light fixture and give off only heat, not light.

These are available in different wattages. It is possible to have a set up where the lights come on in the morning and turn off at night, and the CHEs come on at night and turn off in the morning. Another possibility is to use a low wattage CHE 24 hours a day in addition to the daytime lights. Since iguanas can and should have cooler temperatures at night, a CHE of the appropriate wattage should provide adequate nighttime warmth. (more…)

Yellow Fungus On Bearded Dragons

Bearded dragons have been a favored house pet by many pet owners for quite a number of reasons. These docile pets are not only quite tamed, but they are also easy to look after. Once they have settled in their new habitat, you only need to do a few things to maintain their health. If they are provided with adequate and proper nutrition, provided the right level of heat and humidity, as well as cleaned regularly, they may stay with you for the next 10 or more years.

That does not mean that they are free from any sickness that may cause their health to deteriorate. Like any other animals, they are also susceptible to disease-causing microorganisms widely distributed in the environment.

Yellow Fungus: A Lethal Bearded Dragon Disease

One of the diseases that most bearded dragons fear is called Yellow Fungus. It is colloquially known among hobbyists as the Yellow Skin Disease. This fungal infection can cause severe skin infections or fungal dermatitis. If not treated properly, the condition can be fatal to a birdie. Such a skin condition has been proven to be lethal to other reptile species as well.

This skin condition is clinically known as Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii or CANV. It is a skin condition that is caused by aggressive flesh-eating fungi. The fungi attack both the superficial and deep layers of the skin. The infection will first appear as yellow, brown or grayish patches on the surface of the scales. It is normally seen as a small spot that gets bigger in time. More spots may appear on other parts of the body as time passes by. As the disease progresses, the color of the patches will become dark. It will also be cracked or crusty.

The discoloration of the skin is accompanied by the formation of necrotic lesions. This formation will eventually scrape the outer layer of the skin and reveal sensitive ulcerated tissues underneath the scales. It can also spread painful swelling and inflammation under the skin. In more severe cases, hyphae of the fungus (main mode of vegetative growth of the fungus),  can extend deeper into the body cavities and internal organs of the reptile. This often causes marked pathology and the eventual death of the beardie.

Symptoms of the Yellow Skin Disease

Bearded dragons are quite active during the day if they are healthy. However, if they are infected with the Yellow Fungus, they may be quite restless.You may also observe them to lose some weight, have a poor appetite, have sunken eyes, shed irregularly. When they shed, what is left behind are dull or discolored scales with a rough appearance. They may also have wounds that have discolored scales around them. These wounds may also be swollen badly, with a discrete puss, and with a foul smell. A bearded dragon that is sheds constantly but does not gain any weight can be manifesting early signs of yellow fungus.

Causes of the Yellow Skin Disease

1. Dirty enclosures. Bearded dragons may be exposed to elements within the enclosure that are already contaminated. Choose the Bearded Dragon enclosure.

2. Overcrowding. When too many dragons are housed and handled together in a single enclosure without proper quarantine measures. Yellow Fungus is a contagious disease. A new bearded dragon needs to go through a quarantine phase until it is considered clear of any health issues. This ensures that only healthy dragons are added to the crowd. (more…)